Gestalt Theory

Gestalt Theory is founded on human nature – how humans perceive information to make sense and meaning. Humans tend to gather elements into a group to perceive the whole image – a macroscopic view over a microscopic one.

The Laws of Prägnanz
(principles of grouping)

Law of Proximity
Objects closer in proximity are perceived as forming a group, or one image.

Law of Similarity
Objects are grouped together if they are similar – colour, texture, shape, size, direction, etc – and are perceived as one image or parts of a whole.

Law of Closure
Objects are perceived as being complete when they are not.

Law of Symmetry
Objects are perceived as being balanced and proportional around a centre point.

Law of Common Fate
Objects are perceived as complete because of lines that move along a path.

Law of Continuity
The elements of objects are grouped together, creating the perception of a whole.

Law of Good Gestalt
The elements of objects are grouped together, creating a whole, if they are “regular, simple and orderly”.

Law of Past Experience
Two objects can be perceived as grouped or linked if they are shown in succession – close proximity in time. It can require pre-knowledge, and memory, of the one perceiving the elements.


Puzzle 1

A man is replacing a wheel on his car, when he accidentally drops the four nuts used to hold the wheel on the car. They fall into a deep drain, irretrievably lost. A passing girl offers him a solution that enables him to drive home. What is it?

Borrow one nut from the three other tires to put on the wheel without.

Puzzle 2

Two Russians walk down a street in Moscow. One Russian is the father of the other Russian’s son. How are they related?

They are both parents of the son.

Puzzle 3

What occurs once in June, once in July and twice in August?

The letter <u>

Puzzle 4

Six drinking glasses stand in a row, with the first three full of water and the next three empty. By handling and moving only one glass at a time, how can you arrange the six glasses so that no full glass stands next to another full glass, and no empty glass stands next to another empty glass? What is the minimum number of moves to solve this puzzle?




Rice Packaging

Design packaging for rice. The packaging has to be different from what is out there in the market. Apply each one of the SCAMPER techniques and do a write‑up on your findings. Then choose the option that you think would work best and do a sketch of what the packaging would look like.

Already on the market:

Web searches


Substitute – Rather than a rip or pull open lid, have a slider.

Combine – Put a measure window on the side of the box.

Adapt – Make the top of the box a measuring cup.

Modify – Have a circular hessian bag with draw string so it is formed by the rice and shape of environment.

Put to other use – The rice box is part of a box system of goods that slot into a bigger box form for tidy and compact shelving.

Eliminate – Take away the cardboard and make the packaging into triple layered paper.

Rearrange / reverse – Rather than providing packaging for 1kg, provide packaging that portions to the recommended daily amount of carbohydrates for weight loss.

New packaging:

Rice Bowel

Eco-friendly – recyclable materials, and reusable

Functional – holds product, has a clip lid for reuse, label is removable, washable, stackable


TASK: A teaspoon is the object. Apply each SCAMPER technique to create new products.

substitute something
Substituting the material of the spoon into wood for an organic and rustic feel.

Marketing: eco-friendly

Organic spoon

combine with something

Add a food pick as the handle of the spoon.

Marketing: two-in-one / convenience


adapt something to it

Flatten the spoon to change it into a mini egg-flip.

Marketing: for crafting horderves

Side view

magnify by adding

Adding an organic carry-case for travel and protection.

Marketing: travel utensils

Travel case

put to other uses

Native wood with the country’s cutout is a modern take on the traditional teaspoon souvenir.

Marketing: Native organics


eliminate something

Take away the middle of the spoon to produce a whisk for better mixing of drinks.

Marketing: efficiency

Drink whisk

rearrange / reverse

Create the handle of the spoon into a product – a spice spoon.

Marketing: back to basics

Spice spoon

Golden Arches Logo

Original Design concept:
In 1952, real golden arches were part of the restaurant design.

Web Search

In 1962, the golden arches were incorporated into the logo design. A V was suggested to represent the arches. It was turned into an M to represent the arches viewed from a certain angle. The current Golden Arches logo, introduced 1968, resembles an “M” for McDonald’s.

Web Search

Web Search

McDonald’s Logo vs SCAMPER

1. V to M – restaurant design

2. In Canada, all McDonald’s stores and commercials have a maple leaf in the middle of the Golden Arches.

3. In Sedona, Arizona, the arches were made turquoise to avoid contrasting with the State’s red rock.

4. Two McDonald’s restaurants, one in California and the other in Arizona, have black arches.

4. Two restaurants, one in Paris and the other in Bruges, have neon white arches.

5. Some McDonald’s signs only have one arch or part thereof.

6. In 2018 and 2019, the arch was turned upside down to represent a “W” for International Women’s Day.

  • Adapt
  • Combine
  • Adapt
  • Substitute
  • Substitute
  • Put to other uses
  • Put to other uses
  • Reverse Rearrange
Web Search
Web Search


Wikipedia 2019, Golden Arches, accessed 24 August 2019,

Inkbot Design 2018, History of the McDonald’s Design Logo, accessed 24 August 2019, <;

Moodle Doodle

Task: Choose a metaphor/concept/analogy that illustrates how you see Moodle with all its different elements and areas.


Moodle is a forum-based platform. It is difficult to navigate because of the design and the vocabulary. Therefore the presentation of information on the platform is ‘messy’ and the information input for the viewer is ‘messy’.

A mess – random scribbles that do not seem to function together, however, as a whole, they create an image/impression.

web search

A scribble is unordered, unkempt, confusing, or meaningless, though it has its own form – loose but present – so the mind can still make sense of it. Over time, the eyes start to see patterns and pathways to destinations – familiarity. What first may be a mess can become chaotic order.


web search

Mr Messy from the Mr Men children’s book series by Roger Hargreaves

Etch A sketch – one line draws the whole design

A Moodle noodle doodle.

web search

Journey to Noroff

Learning Activity – wk1

I’m Leanna Lunde. I’m an Australian who has been living in Norway for the past 15 years. I’ve mainly lived above the Arctic Circle – amazing place – and have just moved down to Oslo to transition into a design career.

I’ve been lucky enough to have had a diverse career in the Arts. I’m an educated Stage Manager with credits in playwriting and video production, and have worked in the Arts as a producer, dancer, choreographer and community artist.

Art and design has always been a part of my job, but now I want to make it official. I’m currently doing a design and marketing internship with a Norwegian company while studying Graphic Design at Noroff. I’m looking forward to honing my skills and reaching the next level.

I am also the manager and designer for a Trance duo based in Norway where I get to extend my skills in design with album artwork, posters and video. I’m excited to have working opportunities to put my design learning into context.

This blog is essentially a platform to document my learning adventure in becoming a Graphic Designer. As I’m at the beginning of my journey, I know I will likely make lots of mistakes and do a lot of work which I will feel embarrassed about in five years time, but… Bring it on!

Design Interests (ATM)

Motion graphics
Movement – I’ve always been drawn to the art of title sequences and motion logos – playing with timing and

Flow – Creating a journey of ideas though text and image that not only entertains but inspires the viewer to action, is both challenging and rewarding.

Design Art
Communication – expressing complex ideas by the simple and elegant juxtaposition of words and image is an exciting challenge, which can produce powerful outcomes.


Assignment Schedule

MA00Work Methods13 Aug18 Aug (midnight)
MA01Design Principles19 Aug30 Aug (16.00)
MA02Logo2 Sep27 Sep (16.00)
MA03Layout14 Oct 8 Nov (16.00)
Project Project Exam 17 Oct25 Oct/6 Dec (16.00)
MA04Photography (Portfolio 1)19 Aug11 Dec (16.00)
Portfolio Portfolio 17 Oct13 Dec (16.00)
MA05??Intro Design for Screen16 Dec24 Jan (16.00)
MA06Photography 227 Jan7 Feb (16.00)
MA08Branding and Packaging9 Mar3 April (16.00)
MA07??Design for Screen10 Feb1 May (16.00)
Project Project Exam 223 Mar17 Apr/5 Jun (16.00)
Portfolio Portfolio 223 Mar12 Jun (16.00)
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