Gestalt Theory

Gestalt Theory is founded on human nature – how humans perceive information to make sense and meaning. Humans tend to gather elements into a group to perceive the whole image – a macroscopic view over a microscopic one.

The Laws of Prägnanz
(principles of grouping)

Law of Proximity
Objects closer in proximity are perceived as forming a group, or one image.

Law of Similarity
Objects are grouped together if they are similar – colour, texture, shape, size, direction, etc – and are perceived as one image or parts of a whole.

Law of Closure
Objects are perceived as being complete when they are not.

Law of Symmetry
Objects are perceived as being balanced and proportional around a centre point.

Law of Common Fate
Objects are perceived as complete because of lines that move along a path.

Law of Continuity
The elements of objects are grouped together, creating the perception of a whole.

Law of Good Gestalt
The elements of objects are grouped together, creating a whole, if they are “regular, simple and orderly”.

Law of Past Experience
Two objects can be perceived as grouped or linked if they are shown in succession – close proximity in time. It can require pre-knowledge, and memory, of the one perceiving the elements.

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